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Entanglement and Frustration in Ordered Systems

M.M. Wolf, F. Verstraete, J.I. Cirac

Int. Journal of Quantum Information 1, 465 **, (2003) quant-ph/0311051 Pfeil

Abstract: This article reviews and extends recent results concerning entanglement and frustration in multipartite systems which have some symmetry with respect to the ordering of the particles. Starting point of the discussion are Bell inequalities: their relation to frustration in classical systems and their satisfaction for quantum states which have a symmetric extension. It is then discussed how more general global symmetries of multipartite systems constrain the entanglement between two neighboring particles. We prove that maximal entanglement (measured in terms of the entanglement of formation) is always attained for the ground state of a certain nearest neighbor interaction Hamiltonian having the considered symmetry with the achievable amount of entanglement being a function of the ground state energy. Systems of Gaussian states, i.e. quantum harmonic oscillators, are investigated in more detail and the results are compared to what is known about ordered qubit systems.