### Dividing Quantum Channels

**Michael M. Wolf, J. Ignacio Cirac**

Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 147 **, (2008)

**arXiv.org**: math-ph/0611057

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**Abstract:**We investigate the possibility of dividing quantum channels into concatenations of other channels, thereby studying the semigroup structure of the set of completely-positive trace-preserving maps. We show the existence of 'indivisible' channels which can not be written as non-trivial products of other channels and study the set of 'infinitesimal divisible' channels which are elements of continuous completely positive evolutions. For qubit channels we obtain a complete characterization of the sets of indivisible and infinitesimal divisible channels. Moreover, we identify those channels which are solutions of time-dependent master equations for both positive and completely positive evolutions. For arbitrary finite dimension we prove a representation theorem for elements of continuous completely positive evolutions based on new results on determinants of quantum channels and Markovian approximations.