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Criticality, the area law, and the computational power of PEPS

F. Verstraete, M. M. Wolf, D. Perez-Garcia, J. I. Cirac

Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 220601 **, (2006)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.220601 Pfeil
*arXiv.org*: quant-ph/0601075 Pfeil

Abstract: The projected entangled pair state (PEPS) representation of quantum states on two-dimensional lattices induces an entanglement based hierarchy in state space. We show that the lowest levels of this hierarchy exhibit an enormously rich structure including states with critical and topological properties as well as resonating valence bond states. We prove, in particular, that coherent versions of thermal states of any local 2D classical spin model correspond to such PEPS, which are in turn ground states of local 2D quantum Hamiltonians. This correspondence maps thermal onto quantum fluctuations, and it allows us to analytically construct critical quantum models exhibiting a strict area law scaling of the entanglement entropy in the face of power law decaying correlations. Moreover, it enables us to show that there exist PEPS within the same class as the cluster state, which can serve as computational resources for the solution of NP-hard problems.