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On entropy growth and the hardness of simulating time evolution

Norbert Schuch, Michael M. Wolf, Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht, J. Ignacio Cirac

New J. Phys. 10, 033032 **, (2008)

DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/10/3/033032 Pfeil
**: 0801.2078 Pfeil

Abstract: The simulation of quantum systems is a task for which quantum computers are believed to give an exponential speedup as compared to classical ones. While ground states of one-dimensional systems can be efficiently approximated using Matrix Product States (MPS), their time evolution can encode quantum computations, so that simulating the latter should be hard classically. However, one might believe that for systems with high enough symmetry, and thus insufficient parameters to encode a quantum computation, efficient classical simulation is possible. We discuss supporting evidence to the contrary: We provide a rigorous proof of the observation that a time independent local Hamiltonian can yield a linear increase of the entropy when acting on a product state in a translational invariant framework. This criterion has to be met by any classical simulation method, which in particular implies that every global approximation of the evolution requires exponential resources for any MPS based method.